Fax: (520) 621-1647
The goal of my research is to improve crop protection, especially in arid environments like the desert Southwest, by exploiting natural disease and drought resistance mechanisms employed by plant roots. My program at the University of Arizona has focused on basic research to describe how crop plants alter the properties of the root-soil environment and thereby modulate microbial community structure in the rhizosphere. The specific goal has been to define the function of root 'border' cells, a population of specialized cells programmed to separate from root tips into the soil where they can stimulate growth and gene expression in beneficial bacteria and fungi, and inhibit growth of pathogens. Of particular interest is the role of border cells in a highly effective form of resistance to root tip infection by soilborne fungal, bacterial and nematode pathogens and to cellular injury by toxins such as aluminum. We now have established that border cells function to protect the root meristem by operating in a manner analogous to mammalian white blood cells: Upon deployment to the soil, border cells actively secrete a complex of polysaccharides, antimicrobial proteins, and extracellular DNA along with soluble metabolites which together function to localize and control microbial growth and development (Wen et al. 2009, Plant Physiology 151: 820-829). The primary focus of current research efforts is to exploit this discovery to facilitate new avenues for improved crop production.
June 1974. B.S. degree in Biology. Centre College, Kentucky.
May 1980. M.S. degree in Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky.
May 1982. Ph.D. degree in Plant Pathology (Mechanisms of Plant Pathogenesis), University of Kentucky.
2004-current Professor, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Plant Sciences, University of Arizona.
1999-2004 Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, UA
1993-1999 Associate Professor, Departments of Plant Pathology and Molecular and Cellular Biology, UA
1986-1992. Assistant Professor, Departments of Plant Pathology and Molecular and Cellular Biology, UA
1983-1984. Postdoctoral Associate, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida
1984-1986. Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Missouri
MEMBERSHIPS and SERVICE
Monitoring Editor, Plant Physiology (2005-current)
Committee on Public Affairs, American Society of Plant Biologists (2007-2010)
American Society of Plant Biologists
American Phytopathological Society
1999-2005. Current Topics in Plant Biology, Journal Club.
1989-2008. Principles of Plant Microbiology, PLP 550
1989-2007. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions, PLP 621
1989-2009. Director, Winter Term Fellowships in Biological Research
Refereed Journal Articles
Curlango-Rivera R, Duclos DV, Ebolo JJ, Hawes MC (2010) Transient exposure of root tips to primary and secondary metabolites: Impact on root growth and production of border cells. Plant and Soil 306: 206-216.
Hawes MC, Ronald P, editors (2009) Focus Issue (http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/full/150/4/1621).
Wen F, White GJ, VanEtten HD, Xiong Z, Hawes MC (2009) Extracellular DNA is required for root tip resistance to fungal infection. Plant Physiology 151: 820-829.
Curlango-Rivera G, Albala G, Kemp JP, Duclos DV, Hawes MC (2009) Contribution of the root cap to soil fertility: extracellular plant lectins. Soil Fertility, Editors DP Lucero, JE Boggs, Nova Science Publishers.
Wen F, Celoy R, Price I, Ebolo JJ, Woo HH, Hawes MC (2008) Identification and characterization of a rhizosphere beta-galactosidase from Pisum sativum L. Plant and Soil 304: 133-144.
Wen F, Celoy RM, Nguyen T, Zeng W, Keegstra K, Woo HH, Pauly M, Immerzee P, Hawes MC (2008) Altered cell wall structure and function in pea hairy roots expressing Pisum sativum xyloglucan fucosyltransferase (Psfut1) antisense mRNA. Plant Cell Reports 27: 1125-1135.
Wen F, Woo HH, Pierson EA, Eldhuset TD Fossdal CG, Nagy NE, Hawes MC (2008) Synchronous elicitation of development in root caps induces transient gene expression changes common to legume and gymnosperm species. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 27: 58-68.
Woo HH, Jeong BR, Koo KB, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (2007) Modifying expression of closely related UDP- glycosyltransferases from pea and Arabidopsis results in altered root development and function. Physiologia Plantarum 130: 250-260.
Wen F, Curlango-Rivera G, Hawes MC (2007) Proteins among the polysaccharides: a new perspective on root cap ‘slime.’ Plant Signaling & Behavior 2: 410-412.
Wen F, VanEtten H, Tsaiprailis G, Hawes MC (2007) Extracellular proteins in Pisum sativum L. root tip and border cell exudates. Plant Physiol 143: 773-783.
Woo HH, Byeong RJB, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (2007) Characterization of Arabidopsis AtUGT85A and AtGUS gene families and their expression in rapidly dividing tissues. Genomics 90: 143-153.
Gunawardena U, Zhao X, Hawes MC (2006) Update on Roots: Contribution to the Rhizosphere. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 1. http://www.els/net.
Hawes MC, Wen F, Woo HH (2006) Roots and Soil Management: Interactions between roots and the soil, pp 107-119. Co-Editors R.W. Zobel, S.F. Wright, American Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin.
Gunawardena U, VanEtten H, Hawes MC (2005) Tissue specific localization of pea (Pisum sativum L.) root infection by Nectria haematococca: Mechanisms and consequences. Plant Physiology 137: 1363-1374.
Hamamoto L, Hawes MC, Rost TL (2005) The production and release of living root cap border cells is a function of root apical meristem type in dicotyledonous angiosperm plants. Annals of Botany 97: 917-923.
Hubbard JE, Schmitt N, McClure M, Stock SP, Hawes MC (2005) Characterization of root exudate induced quiescence in parasitic, entomophathogenic, and free-living nematode species. Nematology 7: 321-331.
Wen F, Laskowski M, Hawes MC (2005) Cell separation in roots. Annual Plant Reviews Series, Blackwell Publishing, Cell Separation in Plants, Editor J. Roberts.
Woo HH, Jeong B, Hawes MC (2005) Flavonoids: From Cell Cycle to Biotechnology. Biotechnology Letters 27: 365-374.
Celoy R, Wen F, Gardais S, Hawes MC (2004) Altered structure, composition, and biological activity of root exudates in transgenic roots with altered root cap gene expression. Phytopathology 94: S14.
Wen FS, Woo HH, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (2004) Lethality of inducible, meristem-localized ectopic beta-glucuronidase expression in plants. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 22: 7-14.
Woo HH, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (2004) Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle. Plant Cell Reports 22: 967-973.
Zhu Y, Wen F, Zhao X, Hawes MC (2004) Isolation of the promoter of a root cap expressed pectinmethylesterase gene from Pisum sativum L. (rcpme1) and its use in the study of gene activity. Plant and Soil 265: 47-59.
Farrar J, Hawes MC, Jones D, Lindow S (2003) How roots control the flux of carbon to the rhizosphere. Ecology 84: 827-837.
Woo HH, Faull KF, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (2003) Altered life cycle in Arabidopsis plants expressing PsUGT1, a UDP-glucuronosyl transferase encoding gene from pea. Plant Physiology 133: 538-54.
Gunawardena U, Hawes MC (2002) Tissue specific localization of root infection by fungal pathogens: role of root border cells. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 15: 1128-1136.
Hawes MC, Bengough G, Cassab G, Ponce G (2002) Root caps and rhizosphere. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 21: 352-367
Brigham LA, Hawes MC, Miyasaka SC (2001) Avoidance of aluminum toxicity: Role of root border cells. pp 452-456, Plant Nutrition--Food security and sustainability of agroecosystems, WJ Horst et al (Eds).
Gunawardena U, Zhao X, Hawes MC (2001) Roots: Contribution to the Rhizosphere. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 1. /www.els/net
Miyasaka S, Hawes MC (2001) Possible role of root border cells in detection and avoidance of aluminum toxicity. Plant Physiology 125: 1978-1987.
Woo HH, Kuleck G, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (2001) Flavonoids: Signals in plant development. In "Experimental Medicine and Biology," eds. B.S. Buslig, J.A.Manthey, American Chemical Society.
Hawes MC, Gunawardena U, Miyasaka S, Zhao X (2000) The role of root border cells in plant defense. Trends in Plant Sciences 5:128-133
Zhao X, Schmidt M, Hawes MC (2000) Species-dependent effects of root border cells on nematode chemotaxis and motility. Phytopathology 90: 1239-1245.
Zhao X, Misaghi I, Hawes MC (2000) Stimulation of border cell production in response to increased carbon dioxide levels. Plant Physiology 122: 1-8.
Wen F, Zhu Y, Brigham LA, Hawes MC (1999) Expression of an inducible pectinmethylesterase gene is required for border cell separation from roots of pea. Plant Cell 11: 1129-1140.
Woo HH, Brigham LA, Hawes MC (1999) Detection of low abundance messages by a combination of PCR and ribonuclease protection. Expression Genetics: Differential Display. Editors A. Pardee, M. McClelland.
Woo HH, Orbach MJ, Hirsch AM, Hawes MC (1999) Meristem localized inducible expression of a UDP-glycosyltransferase gene is essential for growth and development. Plant Cell 11: 1-14.
Brigham LA, Woo HH, Wen F, Hawes MC (1998) Meristem-specific suppression of mitosis and a global switch in gene expression in the root cap of pea by endogenous signals. Plant Physiology 118: 1223-1231.
Woo HH, Hawes MC (1997) Cloning of genes whose expression is correlated with mitosis and localized in dividing cells in root caps of pea. Plant Molecular Biology 35: 1045-1051.
Woo HH, Hawes MC (1997) Rapid mapping and subcloning of genomic clones in bacteriophage lambda by PCR. Biotechniques 22: 822-824.
Zhu Y, Pierson LS III, Hawes MC (1997) Release of nodulation gene inducing chemicals from root border cells. Plant Physiology 115: 1691-1698.
Hawes MC, Brigham LA, Woo HH, ZhuY, Wen F (1997) Root border cells: Phenomenology of signal exchange. In Advances and Perspectives on the Function of Plant Roots, Ed. HE Flores, American Society for Plant Physiology.
Hawes MC, Brigham LA, Woo HH, ZhuY, Wen F (1996) Root border cells. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions Vol 8: 509-514.
Niemira BA, Safir GR, Hawes MC (1996) Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and border cell production: a possible correlation. Phytopathology 86: 563-565.
Woo HH, Brigham LA, Hawes MC (1995) In cell RT-PCR in a single, detached plant cell. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 13: 355-362.
Pan SA, Jin S, Boulton MI, Hawes M, Gordon MP, Nester EW (1995) An Agrobacterium virulence factor encoded by a Ti plasmid gene or a chromosomal gene is required for T-DNA transfer into plants. Molecular Microbiology 17: 259-267
Brigham LA, Woo HH, Hawes MC (1995) Differential expression of proteins and mRNAs from border cells and root tips of pea. Plant Physiology 109: 457-463.
Nicoll SM, Brigham LA, Wen F, Hawes MC (1995) Expression of transferred genes during hairy root development in pea. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 42: 57-66.
Brigham LA, Woo HH, Hawes MC (1995) Root border cells as tools in plant cell studies. Methods in Cell Biology 49: 377-387.
Woo HH, Brigham LA, Hawes MC (1995) Molecular cloning and expression of mRNAs encoding H1 histone and H1 histone like sequences in root tips of pea. Plant Molecular Biology 28: 1143-1148.
*supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and by the College of Agriculture and Life Science, University of Arizona.