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March 2nd 2014 Vegetable IPM Updates
Insect Management
Weed Science
Insect Management:

Recent Insecticide Registrations on Desert Produce and Melons

During the past 20 years, there has been an unprecedented development of insecticide chemistry that has had a major impact on how PCAs manage insects on leafy vegetables and melons. Among these were several breakthrough chemistries including the neonicotinoids, spinosyns, ketoenols and diamides. Without question these products (along with other recently registered compounds) are more effective and safer to use than compounds used prior to 1993. In 2014, several new insecticide products became available for management of the key pest found on desert crops. Sequoia (Sulfoxaflor, formerly known as Closer) is currently registered for use in leafy vegetables and melons in Arizona and should have an excellent fit for aphid and Lygus management in spring vegetables. Although it has a similar target site as the neonicotinoid chemistry, it is not considered a neonicotinoid by IRAC because of differences in how insects metabolize the toxin. Rather, it is classified as a sulfoximine and the first of the chemical class to be registered. Exirel/Verimark (Cyazypyr) was recently registered in Arizona this past fall. Cyazypyr
is not a new chemistry, but rather a 2nd generation Anthanilic diamide. What sets Cyazypyr apart from the other diamides is its unique cross-spectrum activity against major chewing and sucking pests via soil systemic or foliar applications. Torac (tolfenpyrad) received a registration on leafy vegetables last spring. It is a pyrazole; a mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitor. In essence, it is a metabolic toxin that inhibits energy metabolism when the insect comes in contact with the compound. It has shown good thrips activity when used in combination with Radiant or Lannate, and may be an alternative to pyrethroids in tank mixtures. The last new compound, Sivanto (flupyradifurone) is anticipated to be available in early 2015. Sivanto has a similar target site as the neonicotinoid, but like Sequoia, is different from neonicotinoids and is considered a Butenolide. It has good activity against whiteflies as both a foliar spray and as a soil-applied systemic treatment. As a soil systemic in fall melons, it has shown to be very effective against adult whitefly and CYSDV suppression similar to Venom. It also has activity against aphids. More detailed information on these compounds can be found in the following publications: New Insecticides for Desert Produce and Melons.
Remember, When in Doubt . . . . . “SCOUT”

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Plant Pathogen Resistance to Fungicides

Plant pathogens are similar to other living organisms in that they contain a degree of genetic variability within their genes that govern physical structure and internal biochemical activities. Any selection pressure imposed on a population of an organism can result in visible and invisible changes within that population. Selective breeding is a tool used to express the genetic diversity within a population of an organism, as demonstrated by the proliferation of dog breeds or varieties of agricultural crops when compared to their original ancestral forms. Other selection pressures can result in unwanted changes within a population, such as the development of resistance to antibiotics used to treat animal diseases and to plant protection chemistries used to manage plant diseases. In our area, plant protection products are used primarily against diseases caused by fungi. Specific
recommendations have been established by an organization called the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee to manage the development of fungicide resistance within a target plant pathogen population. The major resistance management strategies are as follows. 1.) Do not use a single mode of action in isolation. Instead, apply the material as a mixture or in alternation with one or more fungicides with different modes of action within a treatment program. 2.) Restrict the number of applications of a particular mode-of-action within a season and only make applications when necessary. 3.) Do not apply less than the manufacture’s recommended dose. 4.) Target fungicide applications for disease prevention and not eradication. 5.) Use an integrated approach to disease management. By employing these resistance management strategies as well as using disease-resistant cultivars, biological control agents, crop rotation, and other beneficial cultural practices, the end result can be a high level of disease control, lower amounts of total fungicides needed, and decreased selection of fungicide-resistant components within the pathogen population.
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Weed Science:

Botanical Families

Some of the specialty crops grown here occupy such a minor acreage that there are very few, if any, pesticides registered for use on them. This is especially true for herbicides which are very limited. It is sometimes difficult to even know where to start when checking what might be used. If you know the botanical family a crop is in it can help narrow your search. The botanical family of many of these crops is listed below:

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The Vegetable IPM Updates Archive page provides links to updates from previous weeks.

The Vegetable IPM Video Archive page contains a collection of educational videos from current research work in vegetable crops by University of Arizona Researchers.


For questions or comments on any of the topics please contact Marco Pena at the Yuma Agricultural Center.
College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

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