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PLANT PROPAGATION: SEXUAL PROPAGATION[continued]

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  MG Manual Reference
Ch. 7, pp. 13 - 16

[Sexual Propagation: seed | starting seeds | transplanting ]


Transplanting and HandlingTop

If the plants have not been seeded in individual containers, they must be transplanted to give them proper growing space. One of the most common mistakes made is leaving the seedlings in the seed flat too long. The ideal time to transplant young seedlings is when they are small and there is little danger from setback. This is usually about the time the first true leaves appear above or between the cotyledon leaves (the cotyledons or seed leaves are the first leaves the seedling produces). Don’t let plants get hard and stunted or tall and leggy.
Seedling growing mixes and containers can be purchased or prepared similar to those mentioned for germinating seed. The medium should contain more plant nutrients than a germination mix, however. Some commercial soilless mixes have fertilizer already added. When fertilizing, use a soluble house plant fertilizer, at the dilution recommended by the manufacturer, about every 2 weeks after the seedlings are established. Remember that young seedlings are easily damaged by too much fertilizer, especially if they are under any moisture stress.
To transplant, carefully dig up the small plants with a knife or wooden plant label. Let the group of seedlings fall apart and pick out individual plants. Gently ease them apart in small groups which will make it easier to separate individual plants. Avoid tearing roots in the process. Handle small seedlings by their leaves, not their delicate stems. Punch a hole in the medium into which the seedling will be planted. Make it deep enough so the seedling can be put at the same depth it was growing in the seed flat. Small plants or slow growers should be placed 1 inch apart and rapid-growing, large seedlings about 2 inches apart. After planting, firm the soil and water gently. Keep newly transplanted seedlings in the shade for a few days, or place them under fluorescent lights. Keep them away from direct heat sources. Continue watering and fertilizing as in the seed flats.
Most plants transplant well and can be started indoors, but a few plants are difficult to transplant. These are generally directly seeded outdoors or sown directly into individual containers indoors. Examples include zinnias and cucurbits, such as melons and squash.
Containers for Transplanting
There is a wide variety of containers from which to choose for transplanting seedlings. These containers should be economical, durable, and make good use of space. The type selected will depend on the type of plant to be transplanted and individual growing conditions. Standard pots may be used, but they waste a great deal of space and may not dry out rapidly enough for the seedling to have sufficient oxygen for proper development.
There are many types of containers available commercially. Those made out of pressed peat can be purchased in varying sizes. Individual pots or strips of connected pots fit closely together, are inexpensive, and can be planted directly in the garden. When setting out plants grown in peat pots, be sure to cover the pot completely. If the top edge of the peat pot extends above the soil level, it may act as a wick, and draw water away from the soil in the pot. To avoid this, tear off the top lip of the pot and then plant flush with the soil level.
Community packs are containers in which there is room to plant several plants. These are generally inexpensive. The main disadvantage of a community pack is that the roots of the individual plants must be broken or cut apart when separating them to put out in the garden.
Compressed peat pellets, when soaked in water, expand to form compact, individual pots. They waste no space, don’t fall apart as badly as peat pots, and can be set directly out in the garden. If you wish to avoid transplanting seedlings altogether, compressed peat pellets are excellent for direct sowing.
Community packs and cell packs, which are strips of connected individual pots, are also available in plastic and are frequently used by commercial bedding plant growers, as they withstand frequent handling. In addition, many homeowners find a variety of materials from around the house useful for containers. These homemade containers should be deep enough to provide adequate soil and have plenty of drainage holes in the bottom.
Hardening Plants
Hardening is the process of altering the quality of plant growth to withstand the change in environmental conditions which occurs when plants are transferred from a greenhouse or home to the garden. A severe check in growth may occur if plants produced in the home are planted outdoors without a transition period. Hardening is most critical with early crops, when adverse climatic conditions can be expected.
Hardening can be accomplished by gradually lowering temperatures and relative humidity and reducing water. This procedure results in an accumulation of carbohydrates and a thickening of cell walls. A change from a soft, succulent type of growth to a firmer, harder type is desired.
This process should be started at least 2 weeks before planting in the garden. If possible, plants should be moved to a 45o to 50oF temperature indoors or outdoors in a shady location. A cold frame is excellent for this purpose. When put outdoors, plants should be shaded, then gradually moved into sunlight. Each day, gradually increase the length of exposure. Don’t put tender seedlings outdoors on windy days or when temperatures are below 45oF. Reduce the frequency of watering to slow growth, but don’t allow plants to wilt. Even cold-hardy plants will be hurt if exposed to freezing temperatures before they are hardened. After proper hardening, however, they can be planted outdoors and light frosts will not damage them.
The hardening process is intended to slow plant growth. If carried to the extreme of actually stopping plant growth, significant damage can be done to certain crops. For example, cauliflower will make thumb size heads and fail to develop further if hardened too severely. Cucumbers and melons will stop growth if hardened.
Propagation of Ferns by SporesTop

Though ferns are more easily propagated by other methods, some gardeners like the challenge of raising ferns from spores. One tested method for small quantities follows:
Put a solid, sterilized brick (bake at 250oF for 30 minutes) in a pan and add water to cover the brick. When the brick is wet throughout, squeeze a thin layer of moist soil and peat (1:1) into the top of the brick. Pack a second layer (about an inch) on top of that. Sprinkle spores on top. Cover with plastic (not touching the spores) and put in a warm place in indirect light. It may take up to a month or more for the spores to germinate. Keep moist at all times. A prothallus (one generation of the fern) will develop first from each spore, forming a light green mat. Mist lightly once a week to maintain high surface moisture; the sperm must be able to swim to the archegonia (female parts). After about three weeks, fertilization should have occurred. Pull the mat apart with tweezers in 1/4-inch squares and space them 1/2-inch apart in a flat containing a 2-inch layer of sand, 1/4-inch of charcoal, and about 2 inches of soil/peat mix. Cover with plastic and keep moist. When fern fronds appear and become crowded, transplant to small pots. Gradually reduce the humidity until they can survive in the open. Light exposure may be increased at this time.



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