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Vegetable Garden

  MG Manual Reference
Ch. 10, pp. 47 - 54

If you don't have space for a vegetable garden, or if your present site is too small, consider raising fresh, nutritious, homegrown vegetables in containers. A window sill, patio, balcony, or doorstep can provide sufficient space for a productive container garden. Problems with soil-borne diseases, nematodes, or poor soil can also be overcome by switching to container gardening.
Container Garden
Grow vegetables that take up little space, such as carrots, radishes and lettuce, or crops that bear fruits over a period of time, such as tomatoes and peppers, for best use of space and containers. Dwarf or miniature varieties often mature and bear fruit early, but most do not produce as well overall as standard varieties. With increasing interest in container gardening, plant breeders and seed companies are working on vegetables specifically bred for container culture. These varieties are not necessarily miniature or dwarf and may produce as well as standard types if properly cared for.
The amount of sunlight that your container garden spot receives may determine which crops can be grown. Generally, root crops and leaf crops can tolerate partial shade, but vegetables grown for their fruits generally need at least 5 hours of full, direct sunlight each day, and perform better with 8 to 10 hours. Available light can be increased somewhat by providing reflective materials around the plants, e.g., aluminum foil, white-painted surfaces, marble chips.
Container gardening lends itself to attractive plantscaping. A dull patio area can be brightened by the addition of baskets of cascading tomatoes or a colorful herb mix. Planter boxes with trellises can be used to create a cool shady place on an apartment balcony. Container gardening presents opportunities for many innovative ideas.
Containers Top
There are many possible containers for gardening. Clay, wood, plastic, metal are some of the suitable materials. Containers for vegetable plants must:
  1. be big enough to support plants when they are fully grown
  2. hold soil without spilling
  3. have adequate drainage
  4. never have held products that would be toxic to plants or people.

Consider using barrels, cut-off milk and bleach jugs, window boxes, baskets lined with plastic (with drainage holes punched in it), even pieces of drainage pipe or cement block. If you are building a planting box out of wood, you will find redwood and cedar to be the most rot-resistant, but bear in mind that cedar trees are much more plentiful than redwoods. Wood for use around plants should never be treated with creosote or pentachlorophenol (Penta) wood preservatives. These may be toxic to plants and harmful to people as well.
Some gardeners have built vertical planters out of wood lattice lined with black plastic and then filled with a lightweight medium; or out of welded wire, shaped into cylinders, lined with sphagnum moss, and filled with soil mix. Depending on the size of your vertical planter, 2-inch diameter perforated plastic pipes may be needed inside to aid watering. Whatever type of container you use, be sure that there are holes in the bottom for drainage so that plant roots do not stand in water. Most plants need containers at least 6 to 8 inches deep for adequate rooting.
As long as the container meets the basic requirements described above it can be used. The imaginative use of discarded items or construction of attractive patio planters is a very enjoyable aspect of container gardening. For ease of care, dollies or platforms with wheels or casters can be used to move the containers from place to place. This is especially useful for apartment or balcony gardening so that plants can be moved to get maximum use of available space and sunlight, and to avoid destruction from particularly nasty weather.
A fairly lightweight potting mix is needed for container vegetable gardening. Soil straight from the garden usually cannot be used in a container because it may be too heavy, unless your garden has sandy loam or sandy soil. Clay soil consists of extremely small (microscopic) particles. In a container, the bad qualities of clay are exaggerated. It holds too much moisture when wet, resulting in too little air for the roots, and it pulls away from the sides of the pot when dry. Container medium must be porous in order to support plants, because roots require both air and water. Packaged potting soil available at local garden centers is relatively lightweight and may make a good container medium. Soilless mixes such as peat-lite mix are generally too light for container vegetable gardening, not offering enough support to plant roots. If the container is also lightweight, a strong wind can blow plants over, resulting in major damage. Also, soilless mixes are sterile and contain few nutrients, so even though major fertilizers are added, no trace elements are available for good plant growth. Add soil or compost if you wish to use a sterile mix. For a large container garden, the expense of prepackaged or soilless mixes may be quite high. Try mixing your own with one part peat moss, one part garden loam, and one part clean, coarse (builder's) sand, and a slow-release fertilizer (14-14-14) according to container size.
Planting Top
Plant container crops at the same time you would if you were planting a regular garden. Fill a clean container to within an inch of the top with the slightly damp soil mixture. Peat moss in the mix will absorb water and mix much more readily if soaked with warm water before putting the mix in the container. Sow the seeds or set transplants according to instructions on the seed package. Put a label with the name, variety, and date of planting on or in each container. After planting, gently soak the soil with water, being careful not to wash out or displace seeds. Thin seedlings to obtain proper spacing when the plants have two or three leaves. If cages, stakes, or other supports are needed, provide them when the plants are very small to avoid root damage later.
Pay particular attention to watering container plants. Because the volume of soil is relatively small, containers can dry out very quickly, especially on a concrete patio in full sun. Daily or even twice daily watering may be necessary. Apply water until it runs out the drainage holes. On an upstairs balcony, this may mean neighbor problems, so make provisions for drainage of water. Large trays filled with coarse marble chips work nicely. However, the soil should never be soggy or have water standing on top of it. When the weather is cool, container plants may be subject to root rots if maintained too wet. Clay pots and other porous containers allow additional evaporation from the sides of the pots and watering must be done more often. Small pots also tend to dry out more quickly than larger ones. If the soil appears to be getting excessively dry (plants wilting every day is one sign), group the containers together so that the foliage creates a canopy to help shade the soil and keep it cool. On a hot patio, you might consider putting containers on pallets or other structures that will allow air movement beneath the pots and prevent direct contact with the cement. Check containers at least once a day, and twice on hot, dry, or windy days. Feel the soil to determine whether or not it is damp. Mulching and windbreaks can help reduce water requirements for containers. If you are away a lot, consider an automatic drip emitter irrigation system.
Fertilizing Top
If you use a soil mix with fertilizer added, then your plants will have enough nutrients for 8 to 10 weeks. If plants are grown longer than this, add a water-soluble fertilizer at the recommended rate. Repeat every 2 to 3 weeks. An occasional dose of fish emulsion or compost will add trace elements to the soil. Do not add more than the recommended rate of any fertilizer, since this may cause fertilizer burn and kill the plants. Container plants do not have the buffer of large volumes of soil and humus to protect them from over-fertilizing or over-liming. Just because a little is good for the plants does not guarantee that a lot will be better.
General care
Vegetables grown in containers can be attacked by the various types of insects and diseases that are common to any vegetable garden. Plants should be periodically inspected for the presence of foliage-feeding and fruit-feeding insects as well as the occurrence of diseases. Protect plants from very high heat caused by light reflection from pavement. Move them to a cool spot or shade them during the hottest part of the day. Plants should be moved to a sheltered location during severe rain, hail, or wind storms, and for protection from early or late frosts.
Indoor container gardening with vegetablesTop
If you want fresh, home-grown vegetables over the winter, or if you don't have an outdoor space in which you can place containers, it is worth trying some indoor container gardening. Of course you cannot have a full garden in the house, but a bright, sunny window can be the site for growing fresh food all year. Some small-fruited tomatoes and peppers, several types of lettuce, radishes, and many herbs are among the plants you can include in the indoor garden.
Follow directions given above for preparing pots and for watering, fertilizing, etc. However, note that plants will dry out less quickly indoors and will also grow more slowly, needing less fertilizer. To make watering easy it is wise to set the pots in large trays with an inch or two of decorative stones in them. Not only will this prevent your having to move the plants in order to water them, which may discourage you from watering when you should, but it will also provide humidity, which is a major requirement, especially during winter when the house is warm and dry.
As mentioned before, a sunny window, preferably south-facing, is almost a must for indoor vegetable growing. Fruiting vegetables such as tomatoes and peppers will also need supplemental light, such as a combination warm-white/cool-white fluorescent fixture, during winter months. Insufficient light will result in tall, spindly plants and failure to flower and set fruit.
Herbs are a first choice for many indoor gardeners. Many are less demanding than vegetable plants, and cooks find it pleasant to be able to snip off a few sprigs of fresh parsley or chop some chives from the windowsill herb garden. Chives grow like small onions with leaves about 6 inches tall. These plants prefer cool conditions with good light, but will grow quite well on a windowsill in the kitchen. One or two pots of chives will provide leaves for seasoning salads and soups. Plant seeds in a 6-inch pot. The plants should be about 1 inch apart over the entire surface area. It will require about 12 weeks from the time seeds are planted until leaves can be cut. For variety, try garlic or Chinese chives, which grow in a similar fashion, but have a mild garlic flavor.
Parsley seeds can be planted directly into 6-inch pots, or young, healthy plants can be transplanted from the garden. One vigorous plant per pot is enough. Standard parsley develops attractive, green, curly leaves about 6 or 8 inches tall. Italian, or flat-leaved, parsley has a slightly stronger flavor and is a favorite for pasta dishes. Leaves can be clipped about 10 to 12 weeks after planting the seeds.
Cilantro, or the leaves of the young coriander plant, can be grown in the windowsill garden. Cilantro is used in Oriental and Mexican dishes, but it is not available in most grocery stores and must be used fresh. Grow cilantro as you would parsley. Thyme and other herbs will also grow well indoors if given the right conditions.
The small-fruited varieties of tomatoes such as Tiny Tim, Small Fry, and the paste tomato, Roma, may be raised quite satisfactorily in the home. They will challenge your gardening ability, and supply fruits which can be eaten whole, cooked, or served with salad. The Tiny Tim tomato grows to a height of about 12 to 15 inches. Small Fry, which is about 3 feet tall, and Roma will need more space and should be located on an enclosed porch or in a sun room. Several varieties have been developed for hanging baskets; they may be worth experimenting with.
Some of the small-fruited peppers may be grown as indoor plants. Like tomatoes, they require warm, bright conditions in order to grow well indoors. Fruits will be ready to harvest from peppers and tomatoes about ten weeks after planting. Whiteflies and aphids may present a problem on indoor tomato and pepper plants. Keep a close watch for these pests so they do not get a good start in your planting. Yellow sticky traps, either purchased or homemade, are effective in trapping whiteflies. Insecticidal soap or other pesticide approved for vegetable plants can be used to control aphids. Fortunately, you will be less likely to experience problems with such outdoor pests as tomato hornworms, corn earworm (in peppers), and late blight than you would if plants were outside.
For a quick-growing crop, try radishes. These must be grown very rapidly if they are to be crisp and succulent. Scatter radish seeds on moist soil in a 6-inch pot. Cover with 1/4 inch of soil and place a piece of glass or plastic wrap over the pot to conserve moisture until the seeds germinate. Carrots are slower, but can be grown in the same way; use the small-rooted varieties, such as Little Finger, for best results indoors.
Leaf Lettuce
Experiment with various types of lettuce. Leaf lettuce and the miniature Tom Thumb butterhead are some to try. Space them according to package directions. Keep lettuce moist and in a very sunny spot.
If light is limited, an old standby for fresh taste and high food value is sprouted seeds. Almost any seeds can be sprouted: corn, barley, alfalfa, lentils, soybeans, rye, peas, radish, mung beans, sunflowers, etc. Use only special seeds for sprouting available from health food or grocery stores to avoid the possibility of getting seeds treated with pesticide. Use any wide-mouthed container such as a Mason or mayonnaise jar. Soak seeds overnight, drain, and place in the container. Cover with a double cheesecloth layer held with rubber bands, or a sprouting lid. Set the container in a consistently warm spot and rinse and drain seeds two or three times daily. In 3 to 5 days, sprouts will be 1 to 3 inches long and ready for harvesting.
Table 10.13


Vegetable* Light Requirements** Minimum container size Inches between plants in containers Days from seed to harvest Comments
Beans, Bush FS 2 gal. 2 - 3 45 - 60 Several plantings, 2-week intervals
Beets FS/PS 1/2 gal. 2 - 3 50 - 60 Thin plants when 6 - 8" tall
Carrots FS/PS 1 qt. 2 - 3 65 - 80 Several plantings, 2-week intervals
Cabbage FS/PS 5 gal. 12 - 18 65 - 120 Requires fertile soil
Chard, Swiss FS/PS 1/2 gal. 4 - 6 30 - 40 Harvest leaves
Cucumbers FS 5 gal. 14 - 18 70 - 80 Requires hot weather, Support vining types
Eggplant FS 5 gal. 1 / container 75 - 100 Requires fertile soil
Kale FS/PS 5 gal. 10 - 15 55 - 65 Harvest leaves
Lettuce, Leaf PS 1/2 gal. 4 - 5 35 - 40 Several plantings, 2-week intervals
Mustard Greens PS 1/2 gal. 4 - 5 35 - 40 Several plantings, 2-week intervals
Onions, Green FS/PS 1/2 gal. 2 - 3 70 - 100 Needs lots of moisture
Peppers, Bell FS 2 gal. 1 / container 110 - 120 Requires hot weather
Squash, Summer FS 5 gal. 1 / container 50 - 60 Plant only bush type
Tomatoes FS 5 gal. 1 / container 55 - 100 Stake & prune or cage
Tomatoes, Cherry FS 1 gal. 1 / container 55 - 100 Helps to stake & prune
Turnips FS/PS 3 gal. 2 - 3 30 - 60 Harvest leaves & roots

* Consult seed catalogs for varieties adapted to container culture.
** FS = Full Sun, FS/PS = Full Sun, tolerates Partial Shade, PS = Partial Shade

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