Program Outcomes for Parents & Families
Name: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES II)
Reference: Olson, D., Portner, J., and Lavee, Y.  Family Adaptability and Cohesion  Evaluation Scales.  In Camara, K. A.  Test Critiques, Vol. VII., Kansas City, Mo.,  Test Corporation of America, Westport Publishing, 1988.
Target Audience: Family members, age 12 or older 
Abstract:  The FACES instruments were developed to measure two of the major dimensions in the Circumplex model: family cohesion and adaptability.  Cohesion is the degree to which there is emotional bonding between and among family members.  Adaptability is the extent to which the family system is flexible and able to change its  roles and relationships in response to stress.
Administration: Self administered, seventh grade reading level.  The test is administered   twice, once to assess how they perceive their family system, and second, for how they ideally would like their family to be.
How results can be analyzed: Not available
Date: Revision of FACES I resulted in FACES II(in 1981).
Psychometrics: Internal reliability estimates were .91 for cohesion and .80 for  adaptability.(FACES II) 
Subscales: FACES II contains a total of 30 items, of which there are 16 measures of  cohesion and 14 measures of adaptability. Each of the items is in sentence format.
Cost: Not available
Name: Family Adaptation and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES III)
Reference: Olson, David H.
Target Audience: 12-65
Abstract:  Third of a series of scales developed to assess  family cohesion and family adaptability. It is  intended for use with all family types from newly- wed to retired couples, and is administered to all  family members. Both real and ideal perceptions of  family functioning are assessed. Norms are available  for parents at all stages, parents with adolescents  and young couples without children. Factors are: emotional bonding, supportiveness, family boundaries, time and friends, interests and recreation, leader- ship, control, discipline, roles and rules.
Number of Items:  20
Technical Considerations:  Not Specified
Date: 1980
Available From:  Dr. David H. Olson; University of Minnesota, Family Social Science, 290 McNeal Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108
Name: Family Strengths Inventory (FSI)
Reference: Stinnett, Nick, & DeFrain, John. 1985 Secrets of strong families.  Boston:  Little, Brown & Co.
Target Audience: Families
Abstract:  The inventory asks participants to circle on a five-point scale the degree to  which their family possesses certain qualities.  Dealing with crises in a positive manner is one of the 13 aspects measured. 
Administration: Self-administered
How results can be analyzed: Not available.
Date: 1985
Psychometrics: Not available
Subscales: The scales in the instrument are: 
• spending time together and doing things together 
• commitment to each other 
• good communication 
• dealing with crises in a positive manner 
• expressing appreciation to each other 
• spiritual wellness 
• closeness of spousal relationship 
• closeness of relationship with children 
• happiness of personal relationship with spouse 
• happiness of personal relationship with children 
• how good do you make your children feel about themselves? 
• how good do you make your spouse feel about him/her self?
Cost: Not available
Name: Discovering Our Family Strengths (DOFS)
Reference: Dr. Stephen F. Duncan, Department of HHD, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717.  Phone: (406) 994-6745 E-Mail: 
Target Audience: Families
Abstract:  DOFS measures nine family strength areas: caring and appreciation; time  together; encouragement; commitment; communication; adaptive ability; spirituality; community and family ties; and clear roles.
Administration: Pencil and paper tests, self-administered
How results can be analyzed: Not available
Date: Not available
Psychometrics: Contact Dr. Duncan
Subscales: The adaptive ability subscale measures adaptability through the following five  statements: 

a.  We try new things in our family. 
b.  Our family changes its way of handling day to day routines. 
c.  Rules change in our family. 
d.  We can handle problems that come up. 
e.  Different family members act as leaders in our family. 

Cost: Contact Dr. Duncan
Name: Adolescent-Family Inventory of Life Events and  Changes (AFILE)
Reference: McCubbin, Hamilton I.; Patterson, Joan M.
Target Audience: 12-18
Abstract:  This self-report records life events and changes that adolescents perceive their families to have experienced during the past 12 months. It also records life  events occurring prior to the period and which require longer periods to adapt to. A-FILE is used for  research and counseling to assess the stress an adolescent may be experiencing as a result of an accrual  of life events and changes occurring in the family.  An index of family vulnerability to change is made  and adolescents are identified who are at risk of experiencing undesirable outcomes. Norms are available.
Available in:  McCubbin, H. I.; Thompson, Anne I. Family Assessment Inventories for Research and Practice. Madison:  University of Wisconsin, 1987 
Date: 1983
Subscales: Transitions; Sexuality; Losses; Responsibilities and Strains; Substance Use; Legal Conflict
Number of Items: 50
Time: Not available
Name: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS)
Reference: Spanier, Graham B.
Target Audience: Adults
Number of Items:  32
Time: Not specified
Date: 1976
Available in:  Journal of Marriage and the Family; v38 p15-26,  Feb 1976
Subscales: Dyadic Satisfaction; Dyadic Cohesion; Dyadic  Consensus; Affectional Expression Abstract:   Designed to assess the quality of marriage and other similar dyads.  May be used with married or unmarried  cohabiting couples.  Assesses marital adjustment.
Name: Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and  Happiness Scale (ENRICH) 
Reference: Olson, D. H. et al.
Target Audience: adults, couples 
Abstract:  Intended for married couples who are interested in marriage enrichment or  marriage counseling. Helps married couples focus on marital strengths and identify  where work needs to be done.  Counselors with a minimum of training can use this measure effectively.  Religious orientation is one of 14 subscales. Intended to assist married couples to focus on their marital  strengths and to identify work areas to pursue further in counseling or enrichment programs. Designed  to be used effectively by a counselor with a minimum amount of training. Typically used with an individual couple but may be administered and interpreted in a group setting. Appropriate uses of the instrument include discussion of relationship strengths and areas that need work, awareness of various aspects  of a couple's relationship, an aid in the initial  assessment of the couple, and determination of the most problematic areas and issues and of the need  for further counseling.
Administration: Usually used with one couple at a time.  Can be used in a group. 
How results can be analyzed: Appropriate use of the instrument include discussion of  relationship strengths and problems areas that need work and possibly additional counseling. 
Date: 1987
Psychometrics: Available from ENRICH
Subscales: • Idealistic Distortion 
• Family and Friends 
• Marital Satisfaction 
• Egalitarian Roles 
• Personality Issues 
• Religious Orientation 
• Communication 
• Marital Cohesion 
• Conflict Resolution 
• Marital Adaptability 
• Financial Management 
• Sexual Relationship 
• Children and Parenting 
• Leisure Activities 
Contact: Prepare-ENRICH, Inc., PO Box 190, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0190 
Name: Family Hardiness Index (FHI)
Reference: McCubbin, Marilyn A. et al.
Target Audience: Adults
Abstract:  This index was developed to measure the characteristic of hardiness as a stress resistance and adaptation resource in families. It would function as a mediating factor to lessen the effects of stressors  and demands on the family. The index was developed to adapt the concept of individual hardiness to the family unit. Items fit the three components of commitment, challenge and control and reflect a "we"  rather than "I" orientation.
Administration: Not available
Technical characteristics:  20 items; Co-oriented Commitment; Confidence; Challenge;  Control
Title: Family Satisfaction 

Author: Olson, David H.; Wilson, Marc 

Publication Date: 1982 

Purpose Age Group:  13-65 

Abstract: Designed for use in the investigation of a construct termed "family satisfaction". Individual items cover  bonding, family risk of new undertakings, decision  making, discipline, roles, rules, control.  Validity  and reliability are discussed. Norms are included  that were obtained from a national study performed  for a Lutheran organization.  The sample from which  the norms are derived is composed of primarily Caucasian Lutheran families. 

Administration: Not available 

Technical characteristics:  14 items. Subscales:  Cohesion; Adaptability 

Available From: David H. Olson; University of Minnesota, Family  Social Science, 290 McNeal Hall, St. Paul, MN 55018 

Title:  Parenting Stress Index (PSI) 

Author:  Abidin (1986) 

Purpose:  Used as a screening and diagnostic instrument to provide a measure of relative magnitude of stress in the parent child system 

Administration:  Likert-scale items.  Total scale has 101 items and child domain has 50 items.  Yields individual subscale scores, domain scores and total stress score.  Child domain has six subscales (adaptability, acceptability, demandingness, mood reinforcement and distractibility of the child) 

Technical characteristics:  Norms are based on 534 mothers from central Virginia.  Normative data for fathers reveal lower mean scores than mothers.  Father’s mean = 92.9 and mothers mean = 98.4 respectively.  Reliability coefficients for child domain range from .62 to .70. 

Publisher:  Not available 

Cost:  Not available 

Title:  Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC) 

Author:  Mercer and Lewis (1982) 

Purpose:  To assess a child’s (ages 5-11) performance in social roles within the family, peer group and the community.  Information is obtained by interviewing the parent or guardian. 

Administration:  45 minutes for 242 items. 

Technical characteristics:  Available in both English and Spanish 

Publisher:  The Psychological Corporation 800-228-0752 

Cost:  $53.50 for manual, $23.50 for 25 record forms, and $26.00 for scoring keys 
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