Program Outcomes for Youth
Reduction of Risk Behaviors in Youth including: 
Adolescent Substance Abuse
Author: Michael D Newcomb, Bridget Fahy, and Rodney Skager
Date: 1990
Instrument Description:  Likert scales assessing frequency of use of 17 different substances. The frequency of use was averaged for six categories of substances. Two types of scales were developed in this way: one assessing use or non-use of a given substance and the other assessing frequency of use.
Subscales: None.
Literature Reference: Newcomb, M. D., Fahy, B., & Skager, R. (1990). Reasons to avoid drug use among teenagers: Associations with actual drug use and implications for prevention among different demographic groups. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 36, 53-81.
Availability: See literature for a description of the scales.
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Name: CSAP GPRA Client Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs-Youth Tool
Date: 2000
Instrument Description:  Multiple choice questions regarding drug and alcohol use, family and living conditions, and attitudes and beliefs about alcohol and drugs.
Where Available: Contact CSAP
Literature Reference: Included with CSAP's requests for proposals
Subscales: n/a
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Name: Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)
Author: Melvin L. Selzer
Date: 1971
Instrument Description:  A 25-item structured interview that can be used to detect alcoholism. Items are in a yes/no format.
Cost: $5.00 charge for a copy, but no charge for use
Where Available: See literature or contact Dr. Melvin Seltzer, 6967 Paseo Laredo, La Jolla, California 92037.
Literature Reference: Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: The quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127 (12), 89-94.
Intended Audience: Originally developed on alcoholics of all ages, but has since been used with adolescent populations.
Psychometrics: Good reliability (alpha = .95) and validity (r = .90)
Advantages/Disadvantages Was developed many years ago, but has been used repeatedly and is easy to score and considered a valid instrument. There has been some concern that this instrument will not detect problems in individuals who are unaware of a problem.
Name: National Survey of Adolescent Drinking Behavior-1978
Author: Research Triangle Institute
Date: 1978
Instrument Description:  104 multiple choice items assessing alcohol consumption, demographics, attitudes, drinking contexts, personality factors, perceived environmental drug use, tobacco consumption, behavioral aspects of drinking, consequences of alcohol and marijuana use, and epidemiology.
Where Available: NIAAA. (1985). Alcoholism treatment assessment research instruments. (DHHS Publication No. ADM. 85-1380). Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.
Literature Reference: Jessor, R., Chase, J. A., & Donovan, J. E. (1980). Psychosocial correlates of marijuana use and problem drinking in a national sample of adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 70, 604-613.
Intended Audience: Adolescents.
Advantages/Disadvantages Obtains information on a wide range of topics, but there are no published validated scales associated with this instrument.
Name: Situational Confidence Questionnaire (SAQ)
Author: H. M. Annis
Date: 1984
Instrument Description:  A 39-item self-report questionnaire. Respondents rate themselves on a 6-point scale indicating their ability to resist drinking in various circumstances. The questions cover 2 broad categories: personal states and situations regarding other people.
Where Available: See literature or Annis, H.M. (1984). Situational Confidence Questionnaire short form. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.
Literature Reference: Kirisci, L., & Moss, H. B. (1997). Reliability and validity of the situational confidence questionnaire in an adolescent sample: Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30, 147-155.
Subscales: Unpleasant emotions/frustrations, physical discomfort, social problems at work, social tension, pleasant emotions, positive social situations, urges and temptations, testing personal control
Intended Audience: Designed for adults but has been tested with adolescents.
Psychometrics: Each subscale had an alpha between .89 and .96.
Advantages/Disadvantages Commonly used in studies that target self-efficacy and alcohol use, however certain subscales were clearly designed with adults in mind (e.g., social problems at work).


Name: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
Author: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Date: 1999
Instrument Description:  An 87-item multiple choice questionnaire. The questions deal with multiple domains of adolescent health. Some of these domains are relevant to substance abuse.
Where Available: yrbs/survey99.htm

Literature Reference: Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., Williams, B. I., Ross, J. G., Lowry, R., Grunbaum, J. A., & Kolbe, L. J. (2000). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 1999.
Subscales: The specific subscales that deal with substance abuse are: tobacco use, drinking alcohol, marijuana use, cocaine and other drugs.
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Psychometrics: Unavailable
Advantages/Disadvantages While there is no reliability or validity information available for this measure, it is a frequently used instrument that is used yearly by the CDC and was designed specifically to assess substance use behaviors in adolescence.


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