Program Outcomes for Youth
Social Competencies

Decision Making


Baron, J. (1988). Thinking and Deciding. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

This book discusses factors relevant to educating children to be better thinkers and decision makers. The four main sections of the book address different issues: thinking in general; probability and belief; decisions and plans; and the teaching of thinking and decision making. The ideas in this book are explored based on a search-inference framework, where thinking and decision making can be described as inferences made from possibilities, evidence, and goals that are discovered through searching.

Baron, J., Granato, L., Spranca, M., & Teubal, E. (1993). Decision-making biases in children and early adolescents: Exploratory studies. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 39, 22-46.

This article describes three studies which examine decision making biases of children and adolescents. Age and group differences are considered. Deficiencies such as failure to take probabilities into account, to think of frequencies as relevant to probabilities, or to think about the precedent-setting effects of choices were found with early adolescents. Since these factors are considered important to making decisions, it is suggested that instruction in these areas may be warranted.

Jacobs, J. E., Ganzel, A. K. (1993). Decision-making in adolescence. Are we asking the wrong question? Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 8, 1-31.

This comprehensive article discusses the motivational and developmental issues which influence adolescent decision making. The authors argue that these important factors are often absent from the adolescent decision making literature and that they lead to asking different questions. The authors discuss how self-investment in outcomes is what motivates adolescent decision making. The influence of such factors as goals, attitudes, values, emotional states and self-beliefs on decision making are considered.

Janis, I., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment. New York: Free Press.

An early contribution to the decision making literature. The authors? comprehensive and often cited theory of decision making is based on conflict theory, whereby the recognition of the need to make a consequential decision creates psychological stress, and consequent decisional conflict. The authors indicate factors which may influence decisional conflict: cognitive ability, threats to social status, and self-esteem, and they discuss five coping patterns associated with decisional conflict. They suggest several criteria leading to what is called ?vigilant information processing.? Based on the belief that internal standards are an important part of making a decision, the authors suggest a balance sheet where gains and losses to self and others and approval and disapproval from self and others are weighed.

Mann, L., Harmoni, R., & Power, C. (1989). Adolescent decision-making: The development of competence. Journal of Adolescence, 12, 265-278.

This article reviews research on decision-making competence in adolescence. The review focuses on cognitive aspects of decision-making. Nine indicators of competence are discussed: choice; comprehension; creativity; compromise; consequentiality; correctness; credibility; consistency; and commitment. It is suggested that by middle adolescence, most adolescents have achieved a reasonable level of competence. Barriers to decision making competence also are discussed.

Schvaneveldt, J. D., & Adams, G. R. (1983). Adolescents and the decision-making process. Theory Into Practice, 22, 98-104.

This article reviews the literature on adolescent decision making, including how effective adolescents are in decision making and what methods they use. Major factors affecting the decision making process are discussed. The authors view adult-level competency in decision making as a non-linear process.

Decision Making Strategies/Styles

Friedman, I. A., & Mann, L. (1993). Coping patterns in adolescent decision making: An Israeli-Australian comparison. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 187-199.

This article describes a cross-national study of decision coping patterns in adolescents. Confidence in decision making and tendencies to use various decision-coping patterns were measured. Group and gender differences were found, yet for both the Israeli and Australian samples, decision coping patterns reduced to two distinct clusters: a vigilant strategy and maladaptive strategies, thus showing evidence that decision-coping patterns have cross-cultural validity.

Klayman, J. (1985). Children's decision strategies and their adaptation to task characteristics. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 179-201.

This article looks at decision making as an important type of strategic problem solving. The strategic decision behavior of children is examined, particularly the ability to adapt decision strategies to task characteristics. It was found that by the age of twelve, children understand many aspects of strategic decision making, and that they modify their strategies appropriately in response to task complexity, as do adults. Factors which affect decision strategy and differences between adults and children are discussed.

Ormond, C., Luszcz, M., Mann, L., & Beswick, G. (1991). A metacognitive analysis of decision making in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 275-291.

In this study, early and middle adolescents were compared on three categories of metacognitive knowledge as they relate to decision making: person knowledge; task knowledge; and strategy knowledge. It was determined that by middle adolescence understanding of what is involved in the activity of decision making is well developed. Correlations were found between metacognitive knowledge of decision making, decision making style and performance.

Legal Contexts

Moshman, D. (1993). Adolescent reasoning and adolescent rights. Human Development, 36, 27-40.

In this article, the author discusses the often inconsistent assumptions concerning the intellectual competence of adolescents and how this impacts their rights to make decisions for themselves. With a focus on intellectual freedom, a "rebuttable presumption of adolescent maturity" is suggested as being the most compatible with current psychological evidence. The author argues that a consistent view of adolescents is needed, and an adolescent as adult view is supported. A review of research on adolescent reasoning in different domains, including decision making ability, is included.

Scott, E. S., Reppucci, N. D., & Woolard, J. L. (1995). Evaluating adolescent decision making in legal contexts. Law and Human Behavior, 19, 221-244.

A decision making framework designed to evaluate judgment in legal contexts is discussed in contrast to the informed consent framework. The authors suggest that important developmental factors be considered in evaluating adolescent judgment in relation to decision making. Three judgment factors are explored: temporal perspective; attitude toward risk; and peer and parental influence.

Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (1996). Maturity of judgment in adolescence: Psychosocial factors in adolescent decision making. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 249-272.

The focus of this article is the question of whether or not adolescents are less psychologically mature than adults, and how maturity impacts judgment and decision making ability. Three psychosocial aspects of maturity of judgment are examined: responsibility, temperance, and perspective. Greatest differences are found not between adolescents and adults, but between early adolescents vs. mid- to late adolescence. Conclusions are discussed in regard to the treatment of adolescents under the legal system.

Family Influences/Processes

Brown, J. E., & Mann, L. (1990). The relationship between family structure and process variables and adolescent decision making. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 25-37.

The relationship between family structural (socio-economic status, type of family, family size) and process variables (cohesion and adaptability, parent-adolescent communication, parental conflict resolution skills) and adolescent participation in family decision making and vigilant decision making is examined. Findings pointed to the importance of family environment in the socialization of adolescents in sound decision making. Gender differences also were found.

Dornbusch, S. M., Carlsmith, J. M., Bushwall, S. J., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, H., Hastorf, A. H., & Gross, r. T. (1985). Single parents, extended households, and the control of adolescence. Child Development, 56, 326-341.

This study utilized a large national sample of adolescents to investigate the interrelationships among family structure, patterns of family decision making, and deviant behavior of adolescents. Mother-only families were compared to two-parent families in their ability to control adolescents. Many interesting findings resulted from this study due to its comprehensive nature; general findings indicate family structure and family decision making variables are related to adolescent deviance.

Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1993). Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females. Adolescence, 28, 963-970.

This study examines the relationship between adolescent females' perception of parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Parenting style was found to influence adolescent decision making ability. Daughters who perceived both parents high in an authoritarian style indicated stronger indecision tendencies.

Fuligni, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (1993). Perceived parent-child relationships and early adolescents' orientation toward peers. Developmental Psychology, 29, 622-632.

This article cites a study which examines the link between childrens? perceptions of the manner in which they and their parents adjust their relationships during early adolescence, and early adolescents' orientation toward parents and peers. Lack of decision making opportunity for the adolescents and no change in parental assertion and power were found to be factors in extreme peer orientation and advice seeking. The importance of an adjustment of parent-child relationships in adolescence is discussed.

Jacobs, J. E., Bennett, M. A., & Flanagan, C. (1993). Decision making in one-parent and two-parent families: Influence and information selection. Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 245-266.

In this article, a study is described which investigated two factors thought to be important to understanding adolescent decision making: selection and ranking of information; and individual family members? influence on decision outcomes during the transition from preadolescence to early adolescence. The two age groups are compared within both one- and two-parent families. In general, results revealed differences between parents and their children for both information selection and influence.

Liprie, M. L. (1993). Adolescents? contributions to family decision making. Marriage and Family Review, 18, 241-253.

A model for adolescent participation in family decision making is presented. The study cited in this article examined the relationship between early adolescents? perception of involvement in family decision making to perceived locus of control and critical thinking skills and parents? perceptions of their family decision making. Results showed that adolescents who feel in control of what happens to them take more active roles in family decision making.

Health-Related Decisions

Adler, N. E., & Rosengard, C. (1996). Adolescent contraceptive behavior: Raging hormones or rational decision making? Oskamp, S., & Thompson, S. C. (eds.). Understanding and preventing HIV risk behavior: Safer sex and drug use, pp. 31-56. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

In this chapter the authors discuss current trends in adolescent sexual behavior within the context of the debate over adolescent ?rationality.? An important discussion of rational models of decision making is included. Two studies are discussed concerning contraceptive decision making. Although results of the studies show that adolescents are not completely rational, the authors challenge the assumption of adolescent irrationality in decision making. Implications for interventions and social policies conclude the chapter.

Benthin, A., Slovic, P., Severson, H., Mertz, C. K., & Gerrard, M. (1995). Adolescent health-threatening and health-enhancing behaviors: A study of word association and imagery. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17, 143-152.

The purpose of the study cited in this article was to examine the ways in which perceived risks and benefits relate to health-threatening and health-enhancing behaviors by adolescents. Adolescents? cognitions and affective reactions associated with five health-threatening behaviors and three health-enhancing behaviors were examined. Results showed a mix of positive and negative reactions for each behavior. Health-threatening behaviors had many positive associations in common. Reactions were closely associated with participation in the behaviors.

Finken, L. L., & Jacobs, J. (1996). Consultant choice across decision contexts: Are abortion decisions different? Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 235-260.

This article describes a study which explores the consultation patterns of older adolescents for four different types of decisions: abortion; medical; future oriented; and interpersonal. The results indicated that the consultant patterns differed for each type of decision, thus suggesting the importance of context in adolescent decision making.

Langer, L. M., & Warheit, G. J. (1992). The pre-adult health decision making model: linking decision-making directedness/orientation to adolescent health-related attitudes and behaviors. Adolescence, 27, 919-948.

This article presents a model for adolescent health behavior which takes into account the differential information processing from peer sources, parent sources, or through critical or reflexive self-analysis. It also contains a literature review on adolescent development and adolescent health behaviors, specifically concerning AIDS and STDs.

Consumer Decisions

Shim, S. (1996). Adolescent consumer decision-making styles: The consumer socialization perspective. Psychology and Marketing, 13, 547-569.

The study described in this article examined the social factors thought to characterize adolescents' consumer decision-making style. Eight different styles were proposed associated with the influence of socialization agents and antecedent variables. Socialization agents including peers, parents, printed media, television commercials and consumer education were found to influence consumer decision-making style. Antecedent variables such as gender, ethnicity, main reason for working and the amount of parental allowance were correlated with consumer decision-making style.

College Decision Making

Galotti, K. M., & Kozberg, S. E. (1996). Adolescents' experience of a life-framing decision. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 3-16.

This article cites a year-long longitudinal study which examined the college decision making process. Students reported feeling more certain of their decision, more comfortable with their approach to the decision, more confident in their ability to make the decision, and more satisfied. The perception of the process as difficult, stressful and pressured changed little over the process. It was concluded that students do experience stress in making this decision, and in many ways perceive it as a life-framing one.

College Decision Making

Information on career decision making is typically found within the larger body of literature on career/vocational/occupational development. Many measures of vocational choice, including interest inventories, are available. Theories of career decision making can be conceptualized as having unique features and as being broader and more inclusive than theories of general decision making.

Brown, C. (1997). Sex differences in the career development of urban African-American adolescents. Journal of Career Development, 23, 295-304.

The purpose of the study cited in this article was to determine whether sex differences exist in career maturity for African-American urban youth and to examine the career choice expectations and educational plans of these youth. African-American females were found to have higher career maturity, as is consistent with other studies of non-minority groups. Educational plans were found to be consistent with occupational expectations for both males and females. Implications of these findings for counseling and education are discussed.

Fouad, N. A. (1994). Annual review (1991-1993): Vocational choice, decision making, assessment, and intervention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 125-176.

This article offers a comprehensive review of the current literature in the areas of career decision making, vocational assessment, career choice and career counseling and intervention. Although the review is considered representative, rather than exhaustive, a sizable number of articles are reviewed.

Gati, I., Krausz, M., & Osipow, S. H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 510-526.

This article presents a new theoretical model of difficulties in career decision making, by considering decision theory in the context of career decision making. Difficulties in career decision making are grouped into ten distinct categories. A questionnaire, Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire, was developed for the purpose of testing the proposed taxonomy of difficulties. The development and testing of the questionnaire and the process of refinement of the taxonomy are discussed.

Osipow, S. H., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1996). Theories of Career Development. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

The purpose of the book is to examine and evaluate current theoretical and empirical findings relevant to the vocational decision making process. The authors describe the major theories of career development, assess them in regard to their adequacy as theories, examine research relevant to them, compare them to one another, and comment on their potential utility.

Decision Making and Risk-Taking

Bauman, K. E., & Bryan, E. S. (1983). Adolescent beer drinking: Subjective expected utility and gender differences. Youth and Society, 15, 157-170.

The purpose of the study described in this article was to determine whether subjective expected utility (SEU) accounts for the sex difference in beer drinking by persons at ages when many make initial decisions about their drinking behavior. Attitudes and behaviors related to alcohol were assessed with mostly twelve year olds. Findings indicated that SEU accounted for the relationship between sex and beer drinking.

Bauman, K. E., & Udry, J. R. (1981). Subjective expected utility and adolescent sexual behavior. Adolescence, 16, 528-535.

Subjective expected utility (SEU) is a concept often used to characterize the weighing of the expected positive and negative consequences of behavior. In this article, the authors report research conducted to assess the relationship between SEU and the sexual behavior of adolescents. Sex and race differences are examined.

Benthin, A., Slovic, P., & Severson, H. (1993). A psychometric study of adolescent risk perception. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 153-168.

This article describes a study which assesses how adolescents think about risk. High school students evaluated different activities in regards to perceived risk and benefit. Perceptions of risk were found to correlate with self-reported participation. Implications for theory, research and for health education and intervention programs are discussed.

Beyth-Marom, R., Austin, L., Fischhoff, B., Palmgren, C., & Jacobs-Quadrel, M. (1993). Perceived consequences of risky behaviors: Adults and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29, 549-563.

This article describes a comprehensive study comparing adults and adolescents regarding the generation of possible consequences for either accepting or declining opportunities to engage in risk behaviors. Response patterns were found to be similar for adults and adolescents. The differences between the consequences produced for one-time versus regular risk behaviors and open-ended versus closed-ended questioning also are discussed.

Buchanan, D. R. (1993). Social status group differences in motivations for drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 631-644.

The results of an exploratory study on adolescent drug use reveal three themes upon which students from different social backgrounds may be differentiated with respect to their decision making processes about illegal drug use: different motivations; different experiences and feelings about various institutions in our society; and different attitudes regarding the efficacy of social norms.

Green, V., Johnson, S., & Kaplan, D. (1992). Predictors of adolescent female decision making regarding contraceptive usage. Adolescence, 27, 613-632.

The relationship of cognitive capacity, cognitive egocentrism, and experience factors to decision making in a contraceptive usage problem was examined in this study. Cognitive capacity and cognitive egocentrism were significantly related to five of seven decision making variables.

Fischhoff, B. (1992). Risk taking: A developmental perspective. Yates, J. F. (ed.). Risk-taking Behavior, (pp. 133-162). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

This chapter discusses the complex interaction between risk taking and adolescent development. Cognitive, affective and social development are considered and examined regarding their influence on the risk taker. A decision making perspective is discussed whereby risk taking is viewed as a deliberate choice.

Furby, L., & Beyth-Marom, R. (1992). Risk taking in adolescence: A decision-making perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 1-44.

This comprehensive article uses a decision-making perspective to review literature on risk taking in adolescence. An assumption is made that risk taking involves making a choice and that any choice entails some risk. An understanding of risk taking must, therefore, consider the decision making process. Differences between adolescents and adults in decision making (such as how consequences are perceived) are examined using this approach as well as myths of adolescent decision making. The advantages of such an approach are presented and the implications for education are discussed. Alternate views of risk taking also are examined.

Jacobs-Quadrel, M., Fischhoff, B., & Davis, W. (1993). Adolescent (In)vulnerability. American Psychologist, 48, 102-116.

This article discusses a study which disputes the often believed view that adolescent risk taking is a function of adolescent invulnerability. Adolescents and adults were compared in their ratings of the probability that they and several target others would experience various risks. Although both adolescents and adults viewed others as facing somewhat more risk than themselves, there were no pronounced differences between the responses of adults and adolescents.

Lavery, B., Siegel, A. W., Cousins, J. H., & Rubovits, D. S. (1993). Adolescent risk-taking: An analysis of problem behaviors in problem children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 55, 277-294.

In this article, adolescent risk taking is explored from several theoretical positions: Jessor's problem-behavior perspective; risk taking as normal and adaptive; adolescent egocentrism; and a decision making perspective. Adolescent risk taking is argued to be a multidimensional phenomenon involving personality correlates and cognitive aspects of decision making.

Lennings, C. J. (1994). A cognitive understanding of adolescent suicide. Genetic Social and General Psychology Monographs, 289-307.

This article explores suicide as a decision. A number of cognitive concepts as they apply to suicide - decision making, the development of a suicide schemata, covert rehearsal, cognitive rigidity and time perspective are examined. The importance of distortions of time perspective is highlighted.

Lock, S. E., & Vincent, M. L. (1995). Sexual decision-making among rural adolescent females. Health Values, 19, 47-58.

Direct and indirect effects of demographic and psychosocial factors on female adolescents' decisions to engage/not engage in premarital sexual intercourse were examined. The Interactive Model of Client Health Behavior provided a framework to explain the interrelationships among the variables. Findings support the idea that adolescent sexual decision making is a complex process.

Siegel, A. W., Cousins, J. H., Rubovits, D. S., Parson, J. T., Lavery, B., & Crowley, C. L. (1994). Adolescents' perceptions of the benefits and risks of their own risk taking. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 89-98.

The study described in this article assessed older adolescents? (college students) perceptions of the benefits and consequences of risk taking behaviors and how these perceptions are related to their behavioral involvement. Perceived benefits were positively correlated with reported involvement.

Strauss, S. S., & Clarke, B. A. (1992). Decision-making patterns in adolescent mothers. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 24, 69-74.

The authors propose a framework for examining the maturity of decision making patterns of adolescents. The model is applied to adolescent parents. Several key elements of adolescent decision making, such as thinking patterns, risk taking behavior, identity development, coping and goal planning, are discussed. Research issues and measurement techniques in regard to adolescent decision making are reviewed.

Trad, P. V. (1993). The ability of adolescents to predict future outcome. Part1: Assessing predictive abilities. Adolescence, 28, 533-555.

This article explores the idea of adolescents as risk takers. The author reviews the literature and discusses the assessment/intervention of planning and decision making skills. A focus is on factors which influence adolescents' orientation toward the future, namely predicting future outcomes. A previewing technique is discussed intended to assist in the prediction of future outcomes.

Urberg, K., & Robbins, R. L. (1981). Adolescents' perceptions of the costs and benefits associated with cigarette smoking: Sex differences and peer influence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 10, 353-361.

This study examined young adolescents' perceptions of the costs and benefits of cigarette smoking considering two variables: sex of the adolescent; peer smoking habits. Both variables were found to influence endorsement of particular costs and benefits.

Whitley, Jr., B. E., & Hern, A. L. (1991). Perceptions of vulnerability to pregnancy and the use of effective contraception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 104-110.

This article describes a study conducted to determine whether the lower pregnancy risk that sexually active college women attribute to themselves relative to average others results from underestimating their own risk or overestimating others' risk. The perceived differences are then considered regarding contraceptive use. Risk estimates were found to be higher for others than for oneself or one?s best friend.

Wyatt, G. (1989). Decision-making under conditions of risk: Assessing influential factors. The Emporia State Research Studies. Emporia, KS: Emporia State University.

The study presented in this article focuses on assessing the ability of a decision-making model to correctly predict subjects preferences between two alternatives, one of which is highly valued but less probabilistic, and the other less valuable but more probabilistic. A review of the literature on risk and decision making from several different perspectives is included.


Grisso, T. (1996). Society's retributive response to juvenile violence: A developmental perspective. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 229-247.

This article examines theoretical and empirical challenges to a national trend toward increasing punitive determinate sentences in juvenile court, and automatic transfer of juveniles to criminal court for serious violent offenses. Adolescent decision making ability and other characteristics of adolescents are considered.


Baron, J., & Brown, R. V. (1991). Teaching decision making to adolescents. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This book contains chapters written by leading scholars in the field of adolescent decision making. The book addresses a need to include thinking and decision making in school curricula. The book contains general information on decision making and presents and examines several decision making programs for adolescents.

Donnelly, B. W. & Davis-Berman, J. (1994). A review of the chance to grow project: A care project for pregnant and parenting adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 11, 493-506.

This article reports on the progress and outcome of a program for pregnant and parenting adolescents who were exposed to intensive decision-making counseling and case management services. Outcomes at the two-year follow-up included a much higher placement of adoption (a desired outcome), higher levels of school retention, economic self-sufficiency and more responsible sexual behavior on the part of the program participants as compared to a control group. Exact means of assessment are not discussed.

Elias, M. J., Gara, M. A., Schuyler, T. F., Branden-Muller, L. R., & Sayette, M. A. (1991). The promotion of social competence: Longitudinal study of a prevention school-based program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 409-417.

This article describes a follow-up study of a two-year, elementary school-based social decision making and problem solving program aimed at the promotion of social competence. At the follow-up, between four and six years later, program participants showed higher levels of positive prosocial behavior and lower levels of antisocial, self-destructive and socially disordered behavior compared to the control group. The overall effects were found to be beneficial, although overall strength of effects was not large. The authors suggest that interventions in elementary school are necessary but not sufficient as protective factors; opportunities to build on learning through middle school and high school are needed.

Mann, L., Harmoni, R., & Power, C. (1991). The GOFER course in decision making. Baron, J., & Brown, R. V. (eds.). Teaching decision making to adolescents, pp. 61-78. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

In the GOFER course, the importance of both cognitive and motivational factors to effective decision making are considered. The course instructs students in the steps of quality information processing in decision making. Each letter in the word GOFER stands for one step in the process of effective decision making adapted from Janis and Mann's (1977) conflict theory of decision making. The course also addresses how to take control and responsibility for decisions, how to recognize the effects of confidence on decision making, and how to deal with social pressures when choosing an option. After students are instructed in the GOFER strategy for sound decision making, they are given opportunities to apply what they have learned to five important areas: decision making in groups; friendship decisions; subject choice in school; money decisions; and the application of decision principles to various professions. GOFER is a well know and widely implemented program.

Ross, J. A. (1981). Improving adolescent decision-making skills. Curriculum Inquiry, 11, 279-295.

This article describes a curriculum development project based on a model for enhancing adolescent information processing skills relevant to decision making. A set of five skills considered essential to effective decision making are introduced in the program intended for early adolescent students. The article discusses the assessment of the program in three different studies. The program was found to be effective in enhancing the skill development of four of the five requisite skills.

Snow, D. L., Tebes, J. K., Arthur, M. W., & Tapasak, R. C. (1992). Two-year follow-up of a social-cognitive intervention to prevent substance use. Journal of Drug Education, 22, 101-114.

This article describes a two-year follow-up study of the Adolescent Decision Making Program implemented when students were in the sixth grade and intended to prevent adolescent substance use. The social-cognitive approach includes the teaching of: decision making skills; group process skills; and social network utilization skills. The emphasis is on social influence factors and the teaching of coping skills. The intervention was found to maintain a positive effect on mean tobacco use, yet no differences were found for mean alcohol, marijuana or hard drug use.




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