Program Outcomes for Youth
Social Competencies

Decision Making

Name: Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire (ADMQ)
Author: L. Mann, R. Harmoni, & C. Power
Date: 1989
Instrument Description: This 30-item, 4-point Likert-type self-report questionnaire measures self-confidence in decision making and four decision making (coping) styles. Based on Janis and Mann's (1977) conflict model of decision making.
Where Available: L. Mann: Department of Organizational Behavior and Decision Making, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052
Literature Reference: Friedman, I. A., & Mann, L. (1993). Coping patterns in adolescent decision making: An Israeli-Australian comparison. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 187-199.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Subtests: 5 subscales: self-confidence; vigilance; panic; evasiveness; complacency
Psychometrics: Cronbach's alpha: vigilance, .73; panic, .70; evasiveness, .66; complacency, .73.
Advantages/Disadvantages This instrument is widely mentioned and utilized in the literature on adolescent decision making. It was designed by leading scholars in the field of decision making.

Name: Behavior Inventory
Author: D. Kirby & J. Alters
Date: 1984
Instrument Description: This questionnaire was designed for Mathtech as part of a sex education program evaluation. It contains two parts: Part 1 (24 items): Behavioral skills; Part 2 (18 items): Comfort using skills. It was intended to measure frequency with which respondents actually use important skills in everyday life and the comfort respondents experience when using some of the skills. 6-point Likert-type format.
Where Available: ETR Associates, P.O. Box 1830, Santa Cruz, CA 95062-1830
Literature Reference: Lock, S. E., & Vincent, M. L. (1995). Sexual decision making among rural adolescent females. Health Values, 19, 47-58.
Cost: $10.00
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Subtests: Part 1: social decision making skills; sexual decision making skills; communication skills; assertiveness skills; birth control assertiveness skills. Part 2: Comfort engaging in social activities; comfort talking about sex; comfort talking about birth control; comfort expressing concern and caring; comfort being sexually assertive; comfort having current sex life; comfort getting and using birth control.
Psychometrics: Social decision making scale (6 items): Test-retest is .84; Cronbach?s alpha is .58. Sexual decision making scale (4 items): Test-retest is .65; Cronbach?s alpha is .61.
Advantages/Disadvantages Entire questionnaire takes between 15-25 minutes to complete.

Name: General Decision Making Style (GDMS)
Author: S. Scott & R. Bruce
Date: 1995
Instrument Description: This instrument contains twenty-five, behaviorally phrased items measuring decision making style. 5-point Likert-type format.
Where Available: Scott - University of Colorado at Colorado Springs; Bruce - University of Louisville
Literature Reference: Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1995). Decision making style: the development of a new measure. Educational and Psychological Measurements, 55, 818-831.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Adults, but may be appropriate for some adolescents
Subtests: Five subscales: rational; intuitive; dependent; spontaneous; and avoidant.
Psychometrics: Face validity and logical content validity; alpha's from .68 to .94
Advantages/Disadvantages Not designed particularly for adolescents. Short administration time.

Name: Decision Making Inventory (DMI)
Author: W. C. Coscarelli, R. Johnson, & J. Johnson
Date: 1983-1986
Instrument Description: This instrument is designed to assess an individual?s preferred style of decision making. It was designed as an aid to help people understand how they make decisions. It contains 20 questions. 6-point Likert-type format.
Where Available: Publisher: Marathon Consulting and Press.
Literature Reference: Coscarelli, W. C. (1983). Developing a decision making inventory to assess Johnson's decision making styles. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 16, 149-160.
Cost: $35 for complete kit including 25 inventories, 2 scoring grids, manual and scoring supplement; $28 for 50 scales.
Intended Audience: High school and college students (Form H); working adults (Form I).
Subtests: Four subscales: Information gathering style (spontaneous, systematic) and Information processing style (internal, external)
Psychometrics: Form H: Alpha coefficients range from .30 to .69; Form I: Alpha coefficients range from .34 to .73.
Advantages/Disadvantages Quick, group administration - 10 minutes. Counselor is needed for interpretation and discussion with the respondent. Most useful as an inventory in a counseling setting.

Name: Self Concept Scale, Secondary Level
Author: B. Percival
Date: 1980-82
Instrument Description: This instrument is designed to measure self concept in basic living skills. Contains a decision making subscale.
Where Available: Publisher: Dallas Educational Services
Literature Reference: Murphy, L. L., Conoley, J. C., & Impara, J. C. (1994). Tests in print IV. Lincoln, Nebraska: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Cost: $35.80 for complete kit including manual, 35 pupil record forms and profile sheets; $35.75 for 50 pupil record forms/profile sheets; $3.85 per manual; $1.00 per pupil for machine scoring.
Intended Audience: Grades 7-12.
Subtests: Six subscales: decision making; interpersonal relationships; responsibility; citizenship, career planning, total.
Psychometrics: Not available.
Advantages/Disadvantages Quick, group administration - 15 to 20 minutes. Not widely used.

Name: Personal Skills Map (PSM-A)
Author: People Builders International, Inc.
Date: 1993
Instrument Description: This instrument offers a means for the positive self-assessment of intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, career/life management skills, stress management, and problematic behaviors.
Where Available: Publisher: Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc.
Literature Reference: Nelson, D. B., & Low, G. R. (1981). Personal Skills Map: A Positive Assessment of Career/Life Effectiveness Skills: Manual. Corpus Christi, TX: Institute for the Development of Human Resources.
Cost: $125.00 per 10 personal skills maps.
Intended Audience: Ages 13-19.
Subtests: 14 subscales: self-esteem; growth motivation; change orientation; interpersonal assertion; interpersonal aggression; interpersonal deference; interpersonal awareness; empathy; drive strength; decision making; time management; sales orientation; commitment ethic; and stress management.
Psychometrics: Test-retest reliability coefficients range from .64 to .94 for the adult version. Not available for adolescent version.
Advantages/Disadvantages Individual or group administration - 30-40 minutes. Intended for use in human development education, individual and group counseling, and consultation and training that focuses on personal growth as a skill-building process. Costly for use in a community-based program.

Name: Family Decision-Making Style Scale
Author: J. L. Epstein & J. M. McPartland
Date: 1984
Instrument Description: This instrument is a 12-item questionnaire containing 9 true-false and 3 multiple-choice items. It measures students? perceptions of their parents? practices regarding student inclusion/exclusion in family decisions, how much their parents trust them to make good decisions, and how encouraging or accepting the parents are of the students? participation. Designed for use with two-parent families but can be adapted for use with one-parent families.
Where Available: Authors. See Literature reference.
Literature Reference: Epstein, J. L. (1984). A longitudinal study of school and family effects on student development. Mednick, S. A., Harway, M., & Finello, K. (eds.). Handbook of Longitudinal Research. (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Praeger.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Grades 4-12
Subtests: None noted.
Psychometrics: None available
Advantages/Disadvantages Short administration time - approximately 5 to 10 minutes.

Name: Life Skills Development Scale - Adolescent form (LSDS-B)
Author: C. A. Darden, E. J. Ginter, & G. M. Gazda
Date: 1996
Instrument Description: This instrument was constructed to assess adolescents' perceptions of their own life-skills development in order to determine the need for developmental interventions. The 65-item revision of this scale is an assessment instrument that results in a general score of global efficacy and provides some specific information regarding four identified component parts/subscales: interpersonal communication/human relations skills; problem solving/decision making skills; physical fitness/health maintenance skills; and identity development/purpose in life skills.
Where Available: C. A. Darden, Learning Disabilities Center, 343 Milledge Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-5554.
Literature Reference: Darden, C. A., Ginter, E. J., & Gazda, G M. (1996). Life-skills development scale - adolescent form: The theoretical and therapeutic relevance of life skills. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 18, 142-163.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Adolescents, ages 13-18.
Subtests: This instrument contains a 15-item problem solving/decision making subscale.
Psychometrics: Internal consistency coefficients for problem solving/decision making scale is .86; for total scale .93; for other scales from .73 to .83. Evidence of convergent validity. Interscale correlations were significant but in the low- to moderate range.
Advantages/Disadvantages No significant findings for ethnic differences. LSDS-B is affected by social desirability response style.

Name: Adolescent Decision-Making Inventory (ADI)
Author: B. A. Clarke & S. S. Strauss
Date: 1988
Instrument Description: A semi-structured interview tool which is similar to a clinical interview. It elicits data about six elements of adolescent decision making: thinking patterns; risk-taking behavior; development of identity and personal boundaries; coping; goals and contingency planning; and interpersonal processes. Immature, transitional and mature patterns of decision making for each element are described. The tool has been expanded and revised based on interviews with 230 pregnant and parenting adolescents. A coding protocol has been developed. Interview questions are arranged in an order designed first to establish rapport with an adolescent.
Where Available: Authors: Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Nursing, Box 567, Richmond, VA 23298
Literature Reference: Strauss, S. S., & Clarke, B. A. (1992). Decision-making patterns in adolescent mothers. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 24, 69-74.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Pregnant and parenting adolescents
Subtests: Not Available
Psychometrics: None available
Advantages/Disadvantages Requires 20-30 minutes to administer. Intended to capture the dynamic nature of the process of decision making. May be difficult to implement in a community-based program.




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